Metastable phases and macroheterogeneous composites
The way to control the interfacial reactions that processes during infiltration of macroheterogeneous composite materials is suggested. The idea is to combine the stable and metastable phases in the filler’s structure which dissolves at a different rate in the molten binder. To prove this approach, the structure and gas-abrasive wear of macroheterogeneous composite materials with Cu–20Ni–20Mn binder reinforced by Fe–(9.0–10.0)B–(0.01-0.2)C filler (in wt. %) cooled at 10–20 K/s or 103–104 K/s are studied. It is shown that the wear resistance of the investigated composite materials can be enhanced by accelerating interfacial reactions between the filler and the molten binder. Therefore, the composite materials produced from a rapidly cooled Fe–B–C filler show a higher resistance to gas-abrasive wear due to formation of Fe–Fe2(B,C) metastable eutectics in its structure. This eutectics crystallizes under metastable phase diagram due to the suppression of stable Fe2(B,C) phase formation and saturation of the rest of liquid by iron in the filler cooled at 103–104 K/s. As a result of rapid dissolution of the eutectics in the molten binder during infiltration, the strong adhesion at the interfaces of the composite materials is achieved which prevents the filler from spalling out under the impacts of abrasive.